The break-up of USSR: collapse of Socialism or collapse of the old colonialism?
The break-up of USSR: collapse of Socialism or collapse of the old colonialism?
It is ten years ago, that the state named “Union of Soviet Socialist Republics” has disappeared from the map of the world. “Communism is wrecked” – bourgeois pen-pushers gloat over this event. “Damned Americans have broken our great socialist homeland” – communo-fascists (persons who pose as communists, but in fact are fascists) harp.
What was Soviet Union in fact? What is the cause of its break up?
To answer these questions let’s look to the history.
Before revolution Russian Empire was the world gendarme, which suppressed the freedom of other peoples. European kings repressed revolutions in their countries with the help of Russian troops. Russia along with England was the largest colonial power and it used its colonies (particularly Caucasus and Central Asia) as a raw materials-producing agrarian appendage for Russian industry. Peoples, which were oppressed by tsarism, not tolerated national oppression. The struggle of Chechens led by Shamil is well-known – even Marx admired this struggle. There were uprisings in Central Asia during 1st World War too, when Tsar ordered to send indigenous population to the front.
October Revolution of 1917, which have overthrown the power of landowners and capitalists, strongly promoted the development of bourgeois relations in Russia. Thereby it promoted conquest aspirations of Russian imperialism. At 1922 there was already created Soviet Union, where Ukraine, Byelorussia, Caucasus and Central Asia entered. It was made on Stalin’s initiative in defiance of the right of nations to self-determination. Lenin, who was seriously ill in that time and didn’t take part in state matters, named the plan of creation of USSR erroneous and untimely completely, because in all republics there was movement for independence from Russia as oppressor state. But Stalin didn’t take it into account. He also didn’t take it into account the great law, which was discovered by Marx: “People, which enslave other peoples, can’t be free”.
In the late 1920s Bolshevik Party began industrialization of the country, i.e. creation of heavy industry base, war industry first of all. Raw materials were needed for industry. As a result of this the colonial oppression in republics of USSR was strengthened. For instance, Central Asia, which was backward region as it was, was turned into raw cotton base of Russia. Violent collectivization was begun, which in fact was implanting of serfdom. Stalin’s regime plundered peasants, exported bread-corn and got the means for the armaments race.
The State Bank of USSR at these years has strengthened its monopoly, absorbing all private credit companies. Soviet Union has transformed into country-usurer: already at 1932 it gave credit to Turkey at the rate of 8 million US dollars to buying the equipment from USSR (such credits, which named “binding credits”, permits country-creditor to overprice greatly its own goods). So, USSR has entered into imperialist stage, i.e. in the stage of supremacy of banks and export of capital.
World War II has begun at 1939. This war prepared by all imperialist powers: Germany, USSR, USA, England etc. Armaments race was carry out strenuously in all superpowers. 2 imperialist blocs were formed: the first one included USSR, USA, England, the second one included Germany, Japan and Italy. Thus World War II from the direction of USSR was not Great Patriotic War, as good-for-nothing historians lie; this war was carry out not for freedom of homeland, but for unfreedom of other peoples – peoples of East Europe, Caucasus and Asia.
Thanks to this war Soviet imperialism expanded its spheres of influence: it has occupied all East Europe. Thanks to expansion of colonies super-profits from the export of capital began to flow as a river into the State Bank of USSR, and it became the largest bank in the world.
Thus, Soviet Union was not socialist state, as communo-fascists (Zyuganov, Anpilov, Nina Andreeva etc.) represent it. National income of USSR was split into the wage fund and profit, but profit arises only from exploitation, oppression of the workers, as Marx has proved. At 1975 profits of the Soviet social-imperialism (socialism nominally, but in fact imperialism) amounted to 111 billion rubles, it is 150 billion US dollars by exchange rate of that time. Generally speaking, socialism in a single country is impossible (as in a single town, village, house), it is communo-fascist utopia, aimed at deception of workers. Socialism grows on a global scale, and global economic network, which is created by development of capitalism, serves as a base for it.
Soviet Union along with USA has military superiority in the world: military expenditure of each of these superpowers amounted to 120 billion US dollars at 1978.
Relatively high living standards in USSR was resulted not from socialism, but from profits of Soviet imperialism, which were obtained by the plunder of colonies – republics of USSR, countries of East Europe, Asia and Africa. These profits were very large, and ruling regime gave the piece of these profits to Russian workers in order to bribe them, draw them away from the class struggle. The causes of the absence of unemployment in USSR were the same as in Germany under Hitler: jobs were created because of armaments race.
Soviet Union wasn’t the “brotherhood of nations” too. Union’s republics were raw materials-producing agrarian appendages of Russia: Moldavia was fruit-wine plantation; Georgia was the plantation of tea and citrus plants; Central Asia was the plantation of raw cotton and the base of gas and oil extraction. It was development only of extractive industry in colonies, and Russia put the brakes on development of manufacturing industry there in order to make this republics dependent on Russia, in order to sell Russian finished goods to them at exorbitant price, because colonies have not their own finished goods. For instance, crude oil was extracted from Chechnya, and finished gasoline was sold to it at high price. Already at 1975 the gap between GNP per capita in Russia and those of Union’s Republics was from 1.8:1 (Russia – 5,500 US dollars, Ukraine – 3,200 US dollars) to 3.5:1 (Russia – 5,500 US dollars, Georgia or Tajikistan – only 1,500 US dollars).
For the sake of colonial plunders Soviet imperialism waged the war in Afghanistan: it invested 100 million US dollars in Afghanistan as “friendly aid” at 1960, and only at 1975 USSR extracted from it more than 12 billion cubic meters of gas in return for “friendly aid” (it is more than 1 billion US dollars, i.e. ten times more than it invested in Afghanistan). And when Afghan people have risen in rebellion against Padishah, who was the puppet of Kremlin, Soviet troops invaded into Afghanistan at once. Soviet invasion into Afghanistan was represented as “the support to Afghan revolution”, but in fact Soviet troops were committed in order to defend the profits of Soviet capitalists. Afghan people offered fierce resistance to Soviet occupants.
As any war, the war in Afghanistan exposed shortcomings of the Soviet imperialism. By 1990 the crisis has burst out in USSR. At 1991 the Soviet Union has collapsed. Republics of former USSR were declared to be independent. But did they become independent in fact?
No. On the contrary, they became more dependent. At 1991 the State Bank of USSR was transformed into the Central Bank of Russia, and the Russian capital sacked the shares of Union’s Republics. Russian imperialism got out from crisis at the expense of plunder of the Republics of former USSR (which are the countries of Commonwealth of Independent States today) both at 1990-92 and at 1998. The gap within Commonwealth of Independent States between GNP per capita in Russia and those of oppressed nations is increased. Today it amounts from 7:1 (Russia – 11,000 US dollars, Ukraine – 1,600 US dollars) to 100:1 (Russia – 11,000 US dollars, Tajikistan – 110 US dollars). There are Russian military bases in all republics of Commonwealth of Independent States. Russian corporations (Gazprom, Lucoil, RAO YeES) seized all natural resources of these republics. Average monthly wage amounts 8 US dollars in Tajikistan and 7-8 US dollars in Armenia. But Russian capital continues the plunder of these poverty-stricken countries as it is: the debts of republics of Commonwealth of Independent States to Russia amounts 8 billion US dollars. Interest of capitalists (not only Russian, but still American, English, German, Chinese) in Caucasus and Central Asia is easily explainable: if one can pay the workers only 7-8 US dollars by the month, then the wages costs would be minimal, therefore profits are maximal.
As before, Russian imperialism put the brakes on development of the economy in colonies, keeping them in semi-feudal backwardness. There is almost no manufacturing industry in these countries. As before, they remain the raw materials-producing agrarian appendages of Russian economy. For instance, the share of raw cotton in Uzbekistan’s export is increased from 25% at 1999 to 27% at 2000; moreover, 90% of the export of raw cotton from Uzbekistan falls at Russia. And Russian bourgeoisie pays for cotton by finished goods and the equipment at overstated prices.
Imperialist oppression put the brakes on the urbanization in colonies too. The share of the urban population in Russia has increased more than 4 times last 90 years (from 17% to 74%) and reached the level of advanced capitalist countries, while in Tajikistan – only 2.5 times (from 10.5% to 26%), in Uzbekistan – only 1.5 times (from 24.5% to 38%).
As we seen, colonies of Russia not achieved real independence with the collapse of USSR, but became more dependent. Old colonialism gave place to neocolonialism: plunder of colonies, which is covered by formal recognition of their independence. Russian capitalists have used this deception to deceive the peoples of former USSR republics: “You are independent! We hold you no more!” – they said to these nations. But in fact Russian capital have subjugated them still stronger by financial force and armed force. On the one hand, it is formal recognition independence; on the other hand, it is strengthening of colonial oppression in fact.
As 30 years ago, Russia along with USA has military superiority in the world. These 2 countries have the largest number of nuclear war-heads – 6.000 per country. Although nuclear weapon is not applied as yet (excluding Hiroshima and Nagasaki), however, it is taken into account in secret diplomatic negotiations, in the sharing of colonies. Imperialists share the world according to their financial and armed force.
Russia holds 2nd place after USA in the export of weapons (more than 4 billion US dollars at 2001). Putin’s regime arms Chinese and South-Korean imperialists (which are in the bloc with Russia), also police regimes in India, Iran, Uzbekistan etc. Putin’s regime do this not for the sake of money from selling, but for the sake of holding oppressed nations under its authority through dependent and semi-dependent regimes.
But the wave of people’s discontent rises in colonies. The struggle of Chechens against Russian occupation, the movement “Taliban” in Afghanistan, which proclaimed Moscow (i.e. Russian imperialism) its main enemy; Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan, Islamic revolutionary movements in Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, which claimed about their solidarity with the movement “Taliban”; protest meetings against violent russification in Moldova and Byelorussia – all of them are links of one chain. Bourgeois Russian TV tries to represent these actions as nationalistic actions against Russians. Bourgeoisie needs such lie in order to set Russian workers against workers of other nations, in order to split international comradeship of proletarians. But the words of one teacher from Ukraine, which slip out on TV, expose this lie: “Russian nation is fraternal nation” – he said – “But Russia is not elder brother for us”. Russian poor are brothers to Asian, Caucasus and other poor, but Russia has no right to impose its will on these nations. And only when colonies achieve the real independence, then police dictatorship in Russia would collapse, because ruling police regime is supported strongly by colonial oppression. Only when Russian proletarians overthrow the regime of police batons and colonial plunders, then Chechen proletarians would regard them as their brothers.
Proletarians of all countries unite!
April 6, 2002