The Oil and Gas Industry’s Modern History: The Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian revolution of 1917. In 1825, it produced 3,500 tons of oil and doubled its output by mid-century.
After oil drilling began in what is now Azerbaijan, the largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia, in 1848, two large pipelines were built in the Imperial Russia. The first one is the 833 km Baku-Batumi pipeline, the name given to several pipelines and pipeline projects to transport kerosene and crude oil from the Caspian region to the Gregorian Batumi oil terminal at the Black Sea, which is bounded by Europe, Anatolia, and the Caucasus and is ultimately connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and the Aegean seas and various straits. Batumi is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. The pipeline was completed in 1906. The second one is the 162 km long pipeline to carry oil from Chechnya, a federal subject of Russia, to the Caspian.
At the turn of the 20th century, Imperial Russia’s output of oil, almost entirely from the Apsheron Peninsula, accounted for half of the world’s production and dominated and international markets. Nearly 200 small refineries operated in the suburbs of Baku by 1884. As a side effect of these early developments. the Apsheron Peninsula merged as the world’s “oldest legacy of oil pollution and environmental negligence.”
In 1878, Ludvig Nobel, an engineer, a noted businessman, and a humanitarian, and his Baranobel company (short for cable communications meaning Nobel Brothers in Russian), or The Petroleum Production Company Nobel Brothers, Limited, an oil company, together with Baron Peter von Bilderling, “revolutionized oil transport” by commissioning the first oil/petroleum tanker, a merchant ship designed for the bulk transport of oil, and launching it on the Caspian Sea, the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world’s largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Australian Satellite Communications